Endometriosis in Men

Endometriosis occurs when a tissue resembling endometrial glands and stroma grows in ectopic sites, commonly causing infertility and pain. There’s very little research on endometriosis and even less on endometriosis in men. 

Endometriosis has largely been found in women of reproductive age. However, in rare cases, it in can also be found in men. People often categorize endometriosis as a “women’s health” issue, leading many to think it’s a disease of the female reproductive organs — but it’s not.

In male endometriosis cases, it was most commonly found attached to the bladder, lower abdominal wall, and inguinal region.Endometriosis could also result from things that occur before birth when an individual is still an embryo.

Body parts affected by endometriosis include:

  • Diaphram
  • Bladder
  • appendix
  • Bowel
  • rectum
  • fallopian tubes
  • ovaries

In rare cases also in the:

  • brain
  • eyes
  • nasal cavity
  • Lungs
  • liver
  • kidneys
  • pancreas
  • skin, including surgical scars
  • nerves
  • Vagina
  • Cervix

There are multiple theories on both female and male endometriosis. There is a clear, positive association between increased obesity in men and increased estrogen production. In relation to male endometriosis, it could be theorized that this increased aromatization in adipose tissue could elevate estrogen levels which encourage the growth of endometriosis.

The induction theory of endometriosis emphasises that embryonic cell rests may persist in males and be induced into endometrial tissue. The last theory of endometriosis involves insufficient  immune function. Various studies have cited alterations in both cell-mediated and humoral immunity that coincide with the development of endometriosis.

If you’re experiencing any of the following symptoms and you do not have any other diagnosis — consider talking to a fertility specialist about endometriosis:

  • unexplained abdominal, pelvic, or lower back pain
  • discomfort while urinating or excreting
  • bloody urine or stool
  • Frequent urination
  • pain during penetrative sex
  • extreme fatigue

If your fertility specialist says that you have low sperm motility, be sure to discuss endometriosis as a potential cause as endometriosis can decrease sperm motility.

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